The archeological and anthropological evidence indicates that through thousands of years, the original civilizations of this continent, such as Mayans, Zapotecs, Mazatecs, Incas and Aztecs, among others, used diverse psychoactive plants considered as sacred with therapeutic, divinatory and sacramental purposes. The extended empirical knowledge of indigenous traditional medicine in general and in particular the use and management of psychoactive plants by the original people was practically exterminated after the conquest, the inquisition and the colony, who imposed their worldview and exercised a biopolitics that demonized the ingestion of these sacred plants. Even though, the ceremonial use of the sacred plants has been part of the costumes and habits of a great number of societies of original people from the American continent, and in some cultures, this spiritual and therapeuti technologies have prevailed until our days.
Mexico is site of origin of the ceremonial use and the scientific study of Psilocybin. The national territory is the first place worldwide regarding the number of hallucinogenic species of the Psilocybin genre, harboring 53 species with more that 200 common names. Clinical studies about the effect of their active principles have been reported as beneficial to health in a wide range of security. However, this studies have only been made abroad.
Some of the Psilocybin species has developed in very specific niches of each state, so that they can be endemic of Mexico and the State. Such exclusivity makes them depend on the fagility of their habitat. 26 species of the Psilocybin genre exist quoted in the NOM-059 under some risk category. The General Law of Health and the Penal Code keep classifications, penalizations and exceptions about the use of the Psilocybin that are contradictory and that back away the development of ecological, cultural and scientific actions.
Some of the indigenous ethnic groups that keep making use of the Psilocybin Mushrooms with religious or medical purposes are the Mazatecs, Zapotecs, Chinantecs, Mistemos, Purépechas, Mexicas, among others.
Ayahuasca is an amazonic vegetable compound with ancient cultural and therapeutic traditions of the indigenous people of the Amazonia. Contemporary usos of the Ayahuasca in religious ritual and therapeutic contexts have been expanded internationally. Scientific studies indicate that, when counter-indications are followed, in adequately structured contexts, the Ayahuasca can support processes of personal development and have promising therapeutic effects for the treatment of mental health challenges, such as addictions, depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, alimentary conduct disorders, etc.
Nierika A. C. is collaborating in international scientific studies to better understand the mechanisms of the Ayahuasca and its clinical efficacy. Nierika A. C. is also collaborating in regulatory frameworks in Mexico for the application of the Ayahuasca as a legitimate intercultural medicine.
Some of the indigenous traditions that use this plant are the Shipibo-Conibo, Shuar, Cofán, Yachak, Kichwa, Achuar, Waorani, Záparo, Andoa, Shiwia, among others.
From the endemic and originary plants from the American Continent, the Peyote (Lophophora Williamsi) it’s a cactus that marks a distinctive historical relationship of man with nature. Its adaptation to the scarce moist of the semiarid regions of Mexico, distinguish it as a unique species for its biological and cultural values. It outstands between the biodiversity of cacti of the so called “Chihuahua Desert” (considered as the one of greater extension in North America). Diverse people of America consider it holder of a special spirit with therapeutic and spiritual virtues (that which we call “sacred plant”), that gives cohesion to their social and communal life.